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The Catholicism formally ended 1536 in Denmark, but St Petri church in Malmö already in the previous decade entered a period of uncertainties and financial difficulties, as a consequence the church had to sell off gold and silver included in the Medieval embroidered vestments etc. Furthermore, new acquisitions of ecclesiastical textiles...

EMBROIDERIES, SILKS & VELVETS – AFTER THE REFORMATION (I 13)

The Catholicism formally ended 1536 in Denmark, but St Petri church in Malmö already in the previous decade entered a period of uncertainties and financial difficulties, as a consequence the church had to sell off gold and silver included in the Medieval embroidered vestments etc. Furthermore, new acquisitions of ecclesiastical textiles...

November 23, 2016
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The repeated regulations in 18th century Sweden to do with “sumptuousness and excess” were deciding factors in how people of different social strata were able to dress, making the choice of textile material not only dependent on each individual’s financial status. A complex set of rules were dictated, when it concerned textiles it first and foremost included various restrictions on silks, laces, voluminous types of clothes, trains on dresses etc luxury items...

A STUDY OF TWO HAND-COLOURED FASHION DRAWINGS FROM 1792 (F 10)

The repeated regulations in 18th century Sweden to do with “sumptuousness and excess” were deciding factors in how people of different social strata were able to dress, making the choice of textile material not only dependent on each individual’s financial status. A complex set of rules were dictated, when it concerned textiles it first and foremost included various restrictions on silks, laces, voluminous types of clothes, trains on dresses etc luxury items...

November 2, 2016
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Mourning traditions and dressed in black have been described from several angles in my book The Textile History of Whitby 1700-1914, which will here be exemplified by two short capes kept at Whitby Museum, advertisements from the local newspaper, censuses and a photograph showing a jet workshop from the 1890s. It may be noted that the jet industry had a very long history, but it was never more prominent than around 1870 when they employed more than 800 people in Whitby....

JET & DRESSED IN BLACK – THE VICTORIAN PERIOD (B 20)

Mourning traditions and dressed in black have been described from several angles in my book The Textile History of Whitby 1700-1914, which will here be exemplified by two short capes kept at Whitby Museum, advertisements from the local newspaper, censuses and a photograph showing a jet workshop from the 1890s. It may be noted that the jet industry had a very long history, but it was never more prominent than around 1870...

October 12, 2016
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Clothes and domestic textiles were important for health and fighting illness in the Victorian era. One aspect was that it was healthy to keep warm, and in this respect woollen clothes were unbeatable. Hence the Woollen Movement introduced in the 1870s; central to this was woollen underclothes, but all kinds of woollen garments now became more popular even among the wealthy, who had previously preferred cotton and silk material...

THE LATE 19TH-CENTURY WOOLLEN MOVEMENT & HEALTH ASPECTS (B 19)

Clothes and domestic textiles were important for health and fighting illness in the Victorian era. One aspect was that it was healthy to keep warm, and in this respect woollen clothes were unbeatable. Hence the Woollen Movement introduced in the 1870s; central to this was woollen underclothes, but all kinds of woollen garments now became more popular even among the wealthy, who had previously preferred cotton and silk material...

September 27, 2016
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A final post of the late Medieval textiles in St Petri church will give a brief history of the professional embroiderers’ skills, used designs and how this trade in some areas developed into surprisingly large scale production centres on the Continent, England and in the Nordic area. These complex and artistic embroideries...

THE EMBROIDERERS – MEDIEVAL TEXTILES (I 12)

A final post of the late Medieval textiles in St Petri church will give a brief history of the professional embroiderers’ skills, used designs and how this trade in some areas developed into surprisingly large scale production centres on the Continent, England and in the Nordic area. These complex and artistic embroideries...

September 6, 2016
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The tradition of transferring designs for free embroideries was well known in the 18th century. Professional workshops as well as domestic embroiderers had the possibility to draw the pattern freehand with chalk, charcoal or ink on the fabric, but more commonly designs were transferred onto linens, fine muslins, woollens etc with various methods from printed or hand drawn paper patterns. Inspirations for such motifs...

TRANSFERRING EMBROIDERY DESIGNS IN THE 18TH CENTURY (F 9)

The tradition of transferring designs for free embroideries was well known in the 18th century. Professional workshops as well as domestic embroiderers had the possibility to draw the pattern freehand with chalk, charcoal or ink on the fabric, but more commonly designs were transferred onto linens, fine muslins, woollens etc with various methods from printed or hand drawn paper patterns. Inspirations for such motifs...

August 18, 2016
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Whitby photographs depicting textiles and clothing can be traced back to the 1860s, but there is evidence suggesting that a photographic portrait studio was introduced already in 1848 via local advertisements in the 1856 Whitby Gazette – describing that the Mr W. Stonehouse’s business had been active ‘for a period of eight years’. This case study will briefly look in to his studio...

EARLY PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS & VICTORIAN ADVERTISING (B 18)

Whitby photographs depicting textiles and clothing can be traced back to the 1860s, but there is evidence suggesting that a photographic portrait studio was introduced already in 1848 via local advertisements in the 1856 Whitby Gazette – describing that the Mr W. Stonehouse’s business had been active ‘for a period of eight years’. This case study will briefly look in to his studio...

August 2, 2016
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A selection of 68 trade cards and bill-heads from 1703 to 1818 demonstrate some fascinating facts of the dyers and cleaners of London. To regard oneself as silk dyer dominated, whilst secondary titles were scarlet dyer, scourer or cleaner of various garments, dyer of cotton/calico or woollen fabrics. These randomly preserved trade cards and receipts also give some idea of preferred colours by the customers...

18TH CENTURY SILK DYERS IN LONDON (E 3)

A selection of 68 trade cards and bill-heads from 1703 to 1818 demonstrate some fascinating facts of the dyers and cleaners of London. To regard oneself as silk dyer dominated, whilst secondary titles were scarlet dyer, scourer or cleaner of various garments, dyer of cotton/calico or woollen fabrics. These randomly preserved trade cards and receipts also give some idea of preferred colours by the customers...

July 11, 2016
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Expensive silks and velvets used in ecclesiastical textiles were primarily valued for their embellishing qualities, whilst the role of the embroideries had double meanings. The decorative function was of great significance with the finest of stitching in silk and metallic threads, but the symbolism of the patterns is believed to have been just as important. These figure embroideries...

MEDIEVAL TEXTILES – BIBLICAL MOTIFS & SYMBOLISM (I 11)

Expensive silks and velvets used in ecclesiastical textiles were primarily valued for their embellishing qualities, whilst the role of the embroideries had double meanings. The decorative function was of great significance with the finest of stitching in silk and metallic threads, but the symbolism of the patterns is believed to have been just as important. These figure embroideries...

June 20, 2016
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The aim of this post is to give a brief text summary and a few images of female fashions, together with some thoughts about women’s possibilities or wishes to stay fashionable and to keep/alter or remodel clothing through their lives. Fashion in chronological order is seen as the most natural way to study fashion history...

FASHION & REMODELLING OF CLOTHING – A REVERSE CHRONOLOGY FROM 1914 TO 1810 (F 8)

The aim of this post is to give a brief text summary and a few images of female fashions, together with some thoughts about women’s possibilities or wishes to stay fashionable and to keep/alter or remodel clothing through their lives. Fashion in chronological order is seen as the most natural way to study fashion history...

June 5, 2016
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Over time between 20 to 30 women worked in the millinery trade in the last two decades of 19th century Whitby, some as employed and others as apprentices or shop-keepers. The Misses Stangoe can be traced via censuses and regular advertisements in Whitby Gazette during twelve years, where it is possible to get a glimpse of their daily working life, what types of goods they had for sale...

THE MISSES STANGOE – MILLINERS IN LATE VICTORIAN WHITBY (B 17)

Over time between 20 to 30 women worked in the millinery trade in the last two decades of 19th century Whitby, some as employed and others as apprentices or shop-keepers. The Misses Stangoe can be traced via censuses and regular advertisements in Whitby Gazette during twelve years, where it is possible to get a glimpse of their daily working life, what types of goods they had for sale...

May 18, 2016
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Lucca, Genova, Firenze, Venezia and Milano – cities where silk weaving developed to a work of art during the Medieval period and Renaissance. These desirable textiles were sold via a myriad of trading routes through Europe and beyond. St Petri church in Malmö was one such customer, who aspired to extend its storage of vestments especially during the 15th century and up to the Reformation...

ITALIAN SILKS & VELVETS – MEDIEVAL TEXTILES (I 10)

Lucca, Genova, Firenze, Venezia and Milano – cities where silk weaving developed to a work of art during the Medieval period and Renaissance. These desirable textiles were sold via a myriad of trading routes through Europe and beyond. St Petri church in Malmö was one such customer, who aspired to extend its storage of vestments especially during the 15th century and up to the Reformation...

May 1, 2016
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The rich information on trade cards and bill-heads in the form of illustrations, printed texts as well as hand-written notes may be compared with observations by the social reformer Charles Booth for historical studies of London. Together these sources give a multitude of facts linked to upholstering as an occupation...

A STUDY OF UPHOLSTERY IN 18TH & 19TH CENTURY LONDON (F 7)

The rich information on trade cards and bill-heads in the form of illustrations, printed texts as well as hand-written notes may be compared with observations by the social reformer Charles Booth for historical studies of London. Together these sources give a multitude of facts linked to upholstering as an occupation...

April 17, 2016
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Umbrellas for protection in the rain and parasols for the sun – here I will give a few examples of the first mentioned from the small coastal town of Whitby during the Victorian and Edwardian periods. These umbrellas can be studied via advertisements in the weekly newspaper Whitby Gazette, two local photographs and preserved models...

VICTORIAN & EDWARDIAN UMBRELLAS – A CASE STUDY (B 16)

Umbrellas for protection in the rain and parasols for the sun – here I will give a few examples of the first mentioned from the small coastal town of Whitby during the Victorian and Edwardian periods. These umbrellas can be studied via advertisements in the weekly newspaper Whitby Gazette, two local photographs and preserved models...

April 1, 2016
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The complex appliqué embroidery was a usual addition for the professional embroiderers in European workshops, when decorating/illustrating the silk vestments with biblical motifs etc. This third post about the Medieval textile collection in St Petri church – aims to present a few very detailed images of these exquisite fabrics together with a brief discussion on silk brocades and how these qualities could be added with fringes, ribbons and other attributes...

APPLIQUÉ & SILK BROCADES – MEDIEVAL TEXTILES (I 9)

The complex appliqué technique was a usual addition for the professional embroiderers in European workshops, when decorating/illustrating the silk vestments with biblical motifs etc. This third post about the Medieval textile collection in St Petri church – aims to present a few very detailed images of these exquisite fabrics together with a brief discussion on silk brocades and how these qualities could be added with fringes, ribbons and other attributes...

March 16, 2016
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It is uncertain for how long people have been making their clothes waterproof with various kinds of wax or tarpaulin, but at least in the 1700s these methods were in common use and in the preceding century the so-called oilskins became popular – for outdoor needs, working coats and particularly for seamen’s clothing...

WATERPROOF GARMENTS – THE LONG NINETEENTH CENTURY (B 15)

It is uncertain for how long people have been making their clothes waterproof with various kinds of wax or tarpaulin, but at least in the 1700s these methods were in common use and in the preceding century the so-called oilskins became popular – for outdoor needs, working coats and particularly for seamen’s clothing. The Mackintosh raincoat was also invented in the 1820s...

March 3, 2016
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In the monograph The Textile History of Whitby 1700-1914, my brief introduction of earlier periods touched upon the long history of Whitby Abbey. This post will give some further thoughts, studied via a preserved early 14th century embroidery that once was believed to have been part of the liturgical textiles of the abbey, and a book written by Lionel Charlton in the 1770s...

TWO TEXTILE REMNANTS FROM THE MEDIEVAL WHITBY ABBEY (B 14)

In the monograph The Textile History of Whitby 1700-1914, my brief introduction of earlier periods touched upon the long history of Whitby Abbey. This post will give some further thoughts, studied via a preserved early 14th century embroidery that once was believed to have been part of the liturgical textiles of the abbey, and a book written by Lionel Charlton in the 1770s...

February 15, 2016
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To find evidence for how shoppers of delicate fabrics and other textile wares carried their purchased goods home or had it delivered to their door can be established and partly speculated from various sources. A few examples will be taken from my research of advertising in the weekly Whitby Gazette from 1855 to 1914, a reconstructed draper’s shop and census returns listing errand boys and others within the textile trade...

PARCELS & BOXES – “TEXTILE SHOPPING” IN THE LONG 19TH CENTURY (F 6)

To find evidence for how shoppers of delicate fabrics and other textile wares carried their purchased goods home or had it delivered to their door can be established and partly speculated from various sources. A few examples will be taken from my research of advertising in the weekly Whitby Gazette from 1855 to 1914, a reconstructed draper’s shop and census returns listing errand boys and others within the textile trade...

February 4, 2016
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In this second post of the Medieval textiles in St Petri, once part of the church’s liturgical traditions, I will discuss some comparisons with other contemporary collections and give a brief introduction to the practice and the use of the silk, velvet and linen vestments. A selection of images depicting the preserved fragments with intricate silk and gold embroideries...

VESTMENTS & EMBROIDERIES – MEDIEVAL TEXTILES (I 8)

In this second post of the Medieval textiles in St Petri, once part of the church’s liturgical traditions, I will discuss some comparisons with other contemporary collections and give a brief introduction to the practice and the use of the silk, velvet and linen vestments. A selection of images depicting the preserved fragments with intricate silk and gold embroideries...

January 17, 2016
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Display windows became popular in the last decades of 18th century in London giving rise to clear improvements for showing off such goods such as drapery in the most desirable way – a novelty which was also introduced in many other English cities and towns around the year 1800. This innovation was primarily due to the technical advancement of producing larger glass windows, but secondarily this also had an important role in the growth of a consumer society...

SHOP WINDOWS – THE DRAPERY TRADE IN THE LONG 19TH CENTURY (F 5)

Display windows became popular in the last decades of 18th century in London giving rise to clear improvements for showing off such goods such as drapery in the most desirable way – a novelty which was also introduced in many other English cities and towns around the year 1800. This innovation was primarily due to the technical advancement of producing larger glass windows, but secondarily this also had an important role in the growth of a consumer society...

January 3, 2016
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2014-emailteaser

2015 IN REVIEW – Annual Report

I am happy to announce that the views on TEXTILIS has increased by about 60% this year – from 9 800 to more than 16 000 views. Most visitors come from The United States, United Kingdom and Sweden – 121 countries in all. ”The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 16,000 times in 2015. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 6 sold-out performances for that many people to see it„

December 30, 2015
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My hope is that a continuation of textile observations with connections to the coastal community of Whitby can reveal some further previously unknown historical events and details. This first case study will give a glimpse of the female shopkeepers The Misses Scott, who can be traced to a number of primary sources dating from the 1890s to 1918...

TEXTILE SHOPKEEPERS IN A COASTAL TOWN – A CASE STUDY (B 13)

My hope is that a continuation of textile observations with connections to the coastal community of Whitby can reveal some further previously unknown historical events and details. This first case study will give a glimpse of the female shopkeepers The Misses Scott, who can be traced to a number of primary sources dating from the 1890s to 1918...

December 17, 2015
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This seventh article of the Malmö area’s textile history will be the first – of several studies – describing the unique collection of vestments preserved and once used in the St Petri church. The collection includes 24 items; fragments of chasubles, copes, linen shirts, an altar piece, one dalmatic, fringes...

MEDIEVAL TEXTILES IN ST PETRI CHURCH – AN INTRODUCTION (I 7)

This seventh article of the Malmö area’s textile history will be the first – of several studies – describing the unique collection of vestments preserved and once used in the St Petri church. The collection includes 24 items; fragments of chasubles, copes, linen shirts, an altar piece, one dalmatic, fringes...

December 2, 2015
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One of my earlier posts includes some brief research of fashion and cloth trade-cards from The British Museum Collection online, dating back to the early 18th century. Once again the aim will be to study historical events from this fascinating and very extensive collection, now based on a search for “haberdashers trade cards”, to get a better understanding for what businesses within this trade sold/offered their customers in London.

HABERDASHERS – 18th & 19th CENTURY TRADE-CARDS (F 4)

One of my earlier posts includes some brief research of fashion and cloth trade-cards from The British Museum Collection online, dating back to the early 18th century. Once again the aim will be to study historical events from this fascinating and very extensive collection, now based on a search for “haberdashers trade cards”...

November 18, 2015
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A rich selection of excavated textile tools from Malmö gives a good comprehension of textile production in the Medieval period. This in the context of local spinning, weaving or plaiting studied from spindle whorls of various materials, loom-weights and more implements...

THE TEXTILE PRODUCTION – A MEDIEVAL TOWN (I 6)

A rich selection of excavated textile tools from Malmö gives a good comprehension of textile production in the Medieval period. This in the context of local spinning, weaving or plaiting studied from spindle whorls of various materials, loom-weights and more implements...

November 3, 2015
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In the previous post the rich selection of finds related to wool and woollen cloth were analysed, linen and silk are not as frequent, but even so fascinating evidence of the inhabitants’ daily lives are presented. In this context I will discuss the trade with linen, the town’s linen weavers, imported silks, an unearthed cod piece and a ribbon of silk...

FRAGMENTS OF LINEN AND SILK – A MEDIEVAL TOWN (I 5)

In the previous post the rich selection of finds related to wool and woollen cloth were analysed, linen and silk are not as frequent, but even so fascinating evidence of the inhabitants’ daily lives are presented. In this context I will discuss the trade with linen, the town’s linen weavers, imported silks, an unearthed cod piece and a ribbon of silk...

October 18, 2015
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This fourth article of the Malmö area’s textile trades and material culture is the first of several posts which will describe the new circumstances for the coastal Medieval town. Various trades had by now been of importance for a long time, but the growing population gave it new dimensions. For textiles and clothing...

A MEDIEVAL TOWN – DOMESTIC & IMPORTED WOOLLEN CLOTH (I 4)

This fourth article of the Malmö area’s textile trades and material culture is the first of several posts which will describe the new circumstances for the coastal Medieval town. Various trades had by now been of importance for a long time, but the growing population gave it new dimensions. For textiles and clothing...

October 4, 2015
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In an “opstagogn” or up-right loom like this one pictured from the Viking Age; plain, checked and striped fabrics in tabby or variations of twill could be produced. These precise skills had evolved through traditions from mother to daughter – to understand the advantages of certain raw materials, dyeing possibilities, weaving techniques and the cloths uses – which must all have been based on a good knowledge of Nature. Branches of study that we today separate into material culture, textile history, design, botany, chemistry etc. (Artistic impression in water-colour by Gunnar Brusewitz in 2000).

THE LATER NORDIC IRON & VIKING AGE – TEXTILE TRADITIONS (I 3)

This third article of textile trade and material culture of the Malmö area, will discuss the development through the later part of the Iron Age and the more complex novelties in luxury materials added to accessories and garments during the Viking Age...

September 17, 2015
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The approximate first thousand years of the Nordic Iron Age (500BC-600AD) was a period when textile related finds first decreased then increased in the Malmö area,... introduction of dyeing from the knowledge learned via local excavations and comparisons with some extremely well-preserved Danish bog finds.

THE NORDIC IRON AGE – CLOTHING AND DYES (I 2)

The approximate first thousand years of the Nordic Iron Age (500BC-600AD) was a period when textile related finds first decreased then increased in the Malmö area... introduction of dyeing from the knowledge learned via local excavations and comparisons with some extremely well-preserved Danish bog finds.

August 27, 2015
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This first part introducing the Stone Age period and continuing into the Nordic Bronze Age (1800 to 500BC) – a time when skin garments went through refinement simultaneously with the early development of woven woollen fabrics and plaiting techniques...

NORDIC BRONZE AGE TRADITIONS – A TEXTILE STUDY (I 1)

...This first part introducing the Stone Age period and continuing into the Nordic Bronze Age (1800 to 500BC) – a time when skin garments went through refinement simultaneously with the early development of woven woollen fabrics and plaiting techniques...

August 7, 2015
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The long history of whitework embroidery has always fascinated me – how by using the same white linen or cotton sewing-thread in a natural way it developed from the actual sewing of garments and household linen to additionally adorn collars, linings, pillow-cases and all sorts of edgings on fabric...

HISTORICAL REPRODUCTIONS – 19TH CENTURY WHITEWORK EMBROIDERY (G 7)

The long history of whitework embroidery has always fascinated me – how by using the same white linen or cotton sewing-thread in a natural way it developed from the actual sewing of garments and household linen to additionally adorn collars, linings, pillow-cases and all sorts of edgings on fabric...

July 14, 2015
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My aim with this text is to describe a well preserved six metre long linen tablecloth dated “1789”, where the original owners belonged to families of barons and counts. Unfortunately there are no clues to by who or where this tablecloth once was woven...

THE HISTORY OF A LINEN TABLECLOTH – DATED 1789 (F 3)

To own a substantial number of unbleached or white linen tablecloths in a Swedish nobility home, was a tradition with its roots in Medieval times. This group of interior textiles also represented an important part of the family linen storage and as a valuable heirloom – a practice continuing for several hundreds of years...

June 11, 2015
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The dove-tail tapestry technique is known in Swedish as flamskväv or ‘Flemish weave’.  Similar tapestry weaving can be seen on textiles that are thousands of years old, from many different parts of the world: for instance, as decorations on clothing and later as wall decorations...

HISTORICAL REPRODUCTIONS – 18TH & 19TH CENTURY DOVE-TAIL TAPESTRY (G 6)

The dove-tail tapestry technique is known in Swedish as flamskväv or ‘Flemish weave’. Similar tapestry weaving can be seen on textiles that are thousands of years old, from many different parts of the world: for instance, as decorations on clothing and later as wall decorations...

May 22, 2015
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Brocaded tabby type “krabbasnår” was just one of several decorative weaving techniques made by the farmer’s wives in southernmost Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries...

HISTORICAL REPRODUCTIONS – A SWEDISH WEAVING TRADITION (G 5)

Brocaded tabby type “krabbasnår” was just one of several decorative weaving techniques made by the farmer’s wives in southernmost Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The technique in itself is fairly uncomplicated, but the brocading weft pattern picked by hand alternating with the shuttled ...

May 1, 2015
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Please feel free to browse the contents and full index separated into Main, Persons & 
Geography Index (30 pages/more than 3000 search words).

CONTENTS & INDEX with more than 3000 search words – THE TEXTILE HISTORY OF WHITBY 1700-1914 (B 12)

A comprehensive index with more than 3000 search words forms a vital part of this forthcoming monograph. This post shows the contents and full index. Including sail weaving & sailmaking, the drapery trade, economic & social history aspects, Victorian studies...

April 12, 2015
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The aim with this post is to present a couple of sample pages from my forthcoming monograph – including sailcloth weaving, dressmaking, material culture, knitting, laundry, dyeing of cloth and much more. This interdisciplinary study has also closely looked into manufacturing & trading, advertisements, port history...

SAMPLE PAGES – THE TEXTILE HISTORY OF WHITBY 1700-1914 (B 11)

The aim with this post is to present a couple of sample pages from my forthcoming monograph – including sailcloth weaving, dressmaking, material culture, knitting, laundry, dyeing of cloth and much more. This interdisciplinary study has also closely looked into manufacturing & trading, advertisements, port history...

April 1, 2015
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WTH Featured Pic

NEW BOOK | The Textile History of Whitby | MONOGRAPH

A LIVELY COASTAL TOWN BETWEEN THE NORTH SEA AND NORTH YORK MOORS. 1700 - 1914. | Printed in 350 numbered copies only, Richly illustrated - 126 Coloured Plates and 212 Black-and-White images, 168.000 words, 9 Chapters, Plate Collection, 3 Appendixes, Notes & Bibliography, Index...

March 18, 2015
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This sixth article from North America will focus on the Finnish/Swedish naturalist Pehr Kalm’s studies of the fur trade throughout his stay and travels in the colonies from 1748 to 1751, together with a brief discussion of the well-documented trades’ long and complex history.

THE FUR TRADE IN THE NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES –OBSERVATIONS OF A MID-18TH CENTURY TRAVELLER (H 6)

This sixth article from North America will focus on the Finnish/Swedish naturalist Pehr Kalm’s studies of the fur trade throughout his stay and travels in the colonies from 1748 to 1751, together with a brief discussion...

March 1, 2015
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A so-called “lace-fan” from the collection, it has a broad red machine-worked lace fastened to an engraved ivory handhold. (Whitby Museum, Costume Collection, 2001/18). Photo: The IK Foundation & Company.

STUDY OF TWO EXQUISITE VICTORIAN FANS (B 10)

The Whitby Museum Costume Collection contains a rich selection of Victorian and Edwardian fans... This “Textile Thought” aims to display some close-up images of two fans – one still in its original case – and a brief history of the usefulness and vogue for such luxury items.

February 11, 2015
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Box of synthetic indigo dye, ca. 1916. (From the Museum exhibition “Making Modernity”). Photo: The IK Foundation & Company in 2014.

NATURAL & EARLY SYNTHETIC TEXTILE DYES – A STUDY IN PHILADELPHIA (H 5)

The fifth observation from North America has been inspired from my visit last summer at the most interesting Chemical Heritage Foundation in Philadelphia. The aim with this article is to give some comparable views of dyeing methods,...

January 25, 2015
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Small pic

HISTORICAL REPRODUCTIONS – LOCAL SWEDISH EMBROIDERIES (G 4)

Many areas in Sweden developed their own specialised embroidery designs in various combinations depending on material, stitching, colours and practical uses in the 18th- and 19th centuries. Three of these local county embroidery...

January 6, 2015
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The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. TEXTILIS was viewed about 9,800 times in 2014. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 4 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.

TEXTILIS 2014 IN REVIEW – Thank You for Visiting!

The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. TEXTILIS was viewed about 9,800 times in 2014. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 4 sold-out performances for that many people to see it. SEASON'S GREETINGS FROM TEXTILIS / Yours, Viveka

December 30, 2014
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A visit to the Concord Museum in New England, formed the inspiration for this “Textile Thought” – a well-presented and most interesting collection situated in lovely surroundings in the outskirts of Concord. A town first and foremost associated with its literary citizens – Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888)....

COTTON AND OTHER TEXTILE MATERIALS – IN THOREAU’S CONCORD (H 4)

A visit to the Concord Museum in New England, formed the inspiration for this “Textile Thought” – a well-presented and most interesting collection situated in lovely surroundings in the outskirts of Concord. A town first and foremost associated with its literary citizens R W Emerson, H D Thoreau ...

December 8, 2014
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Tvistsöm cushion dated 1771, southwest part of Skåne, Sweden. (Courtesy of: Nordic Museum, Stockholm, NM.0324880, & historical facts from catalogue card. Creative Commons).

HISTORICAL REPRODUCTIONS – “TVISTSÖM” EMBROIDERY (G 3)

To decorate domestic as well as ecclesiastical textiles with tvistsöm or the quite similar cross stitch technique, have at least traditions back to the 13th century in Europe. In southernmost Sweden this way of embroidering became ...

November 28, 2014
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Abigail Adams by Gilbert Stuart, c. 1800-1815. Courtesy of: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (public domain)

TEXTILE OBSERVATIONS – THE CORRESPONDENCE OF ABIGAIL & JOHN ADAMS (H 3)

This third observation from North America will give a glimpse of textiles and clothing discussed by John Adams (1735-1826) and Abigail Smith Adams (1744-1818) in their correspondence from 1762 to 1801. The preserved collection of the couple’s private letters ...

November 11, 2014
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A tape loom with spools made in Milford Township, Pennsylvania. The inscription on the loom reads “Elizabeth Stauffer 1794” followed by a text in German mainly wishing her a good life. The German verse is further proof for this loom model’s origin, also to be compared with image (3) below showing weaving in the same type of loom in present-day Philadelphia. Courtesy of: Philadelphia Museum of Art, US.

TAPE LOOM WEAVING AND ITS TRADITIONS IN THE NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES (H 2)

This second observation from North America includes a portrait from 1773, a box tape loom dated 1794, weaving from Philadelphia in July 2014 and some examples of its European textile heritage ...

October 20, 2014
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Whitby’s backbone – the harbour at the estuary of The River Esk – was for a long time the best way of transport for the coastal town. A place for trade with textiles, wool and flax etc. as well as an area to dry laundry. A large collection of photographs taken c. 1880s to 1910s are preserved from Whitby, where especially Frank Meadow Sutcliffe’s pictures have been an important contribution to my work related to textile observations of laundry, sailmaking, trade, local workers’ dress and the well-to-do’s clothes. The image shows one of his depictions from the upper harbour, where the town’s women often hung their washing-lines. A common place for laundry which is also clearly shown in J.W Whiteley’s oil on canvas dated from 1886.
Courtesy of: Frank Meadow Sutcliffe, Whitby Literary & Philosophical Society, Whitby Museum, Photographic Collection.

THE TEXTILE HISTORY OF WHITBY 1700-1914 …

My forthcoming monograph “THE TEXTILE HISTORY OF WHITBY 1700-1914 – A Lively Coastal Town between the North Sea and North York Moors”, is in progress to be published and Subscribers are welcome ...

October 8, 2014
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Early 19th century woollen embroidery from southernmost Sweden was my second attempt in reproducing historical stitching. These well-crafted embroideries with their rich variation of patterns originate from long lived traditions – often also mirrored in the tapestry weaving...

HISTORICAL REPRODUCTIONS – WOOLLEN EMBROIDERY (G 2)

Early 19th century woollen embroidery from southernmost Sweden was my second attempt in reproducing historical stitching. These well-crafted embroideries with their rich...

September 25, 2014
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Oral traditions are usually transmitted from one generation to another through speech or song, but a “time ball” could be another way of re-telling passed events. This native American tradition is traced to the Yakama people, and keeping such a ball was a young woman’s way to remember important occasions in her lifetime, such as courtship, marriage, birth of children etc. with knots and beads placed in a type of timeline. The yarn was made of native growing hemp and twined to a “time ball”, in this way a woman’s whole lifetime could be recorded with the help of one or several balls. These balls could also be untwined when the elderly woman wanted to remember the past or tell the family’s history for younger generations. It was tradition to bury the ball/balls with the woman when she passed away. (Hemp time ball, replica made by Vivian “Stu yat” Harrison 2003, Washington National Museum of the American Indian). Photo: The IK Foundation & Company, London.

UNEXPECTED HISTORICAL TEXTILES & TRADITIONS IN NORTH AMERICA (H 1)

During this year I have had the opportunity within my work at The IK Foundation’s fieldwork “The Bridge Builder Expedition – North America” to take part in a journey covering the province of Quebec in Canada and the U.S. states Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts ...

September 6, 2014
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Close-up image of the grey woollen dolman with its intricate patterned embroidery in tone with the fabric. The stitching with its orientally inspired leaf pattern is machine-made while the garment over all is completed with both hand and machine stitching. The hood is finished of with this beautiful silk tassel, centered in the image. (Whitby Museum, Costume Collection, the garment was not numbered at the time of research) Photo: The IK Foundation & Company, London.

STUDY OF AN 1870s WOOLLEN DOLMAN (B 9)

This woollen dolman originating from the 1870s is an example, demonstrating a practical use for the up-to-date fashion of the time together with great skill in design, hand stitching and machine worked features.

August 22, 2014
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This first observation is looking closer into the very fine embroidery of the old technique blackwork – called “svartstick” in the province of Dalarna. One of many fascinating styles of embroideries, once done by very skilled hands to great craftsmanship and artistry.

HISTORICAL REPRODUCTIONS OF EMBROIDERY – BLACKWORK OR “SVARTSTICK” (G 1)

This first observation is looking closer into the very fine embroidery of the old technique blackwork – called “svartstick” in the province of Dalarna. One of many fascinating styles of embroideries...

August 3, 2014
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Whitby had been a popular seaside destination for many years in the early 20th century;  assisted by advertisements in the local paper from the mid 1850s where drapers, dressmakers, milliners and haberdashers tried to sell suitable clothes and accessories for the seaside tourist...

WHITBY AS A SEASIDE RESORT IN THE EDWARDIAN PERIOD (B 8)

Whitby had been a popular seaside destination for many years in the early 20th century; assisted by advertisements in the local paper from the mid 1850s where drapers, dressmakers, milliners and haberdashers tried...

June 20, 2014
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SILK card

A SELECTION OF EARLY FASHION & CLOTH TRADE-CARDS (F 2)

The British Museum Collection online includes a unique selection of trade-cards donated 1818 by Dorothea Banks, dating back to the early 18th century. Parts of this material is of key interest from a textile history point ...

May 29, 2014
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Textiles woven in double interlocked tapestry are some of the many household items mentioned in southern Swedish estate inventories during the period from 1700 to 1850. These records are important complementary sources for the studies of the farmers’ homes’ furnishing textiles, among many other aspects  ...

TEXTILES IN 18TH- & 19TH CENTURY ESTATE INVENTORIES (A 9)

Textiles woven in double interlocked tapestry are some of the many household items mentioned in southern Swedish estate inventories during the period from 1700 to 1850. These records are important complementary sources ...

May 14, 2014
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Close-up of the new King – Edward VII – 1901. This commemorative cotton cloth is  measuring 79x90 cm. (Owner: Whitby Museum, SOH598). 
Photo: The IK Foundation & Company, London.

QUEEN VICTORIA & EDWARD VII – COMMEMORATIVE PRINTED TEXTILES (B 7)

A unique collection of nine commemorative tray cloths, handkerchiefs, towels and scarfs printed on cotton or silk between 1863 and 1909 are included in the Social History Collection at Whitby Museum...

May 2, 2014
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The life and manners of the Swedish people – including clothing and decorative textiles – were two of many areas interesting the artist and folklore researcher Nils Månsson Mandelgren (1813-1899)...

UNIQUE 19TH CENTURY OBSERVATIONS OF TEXTILES AND CLOTHING (A 8)

The life and manners of the Swedish people – including clothing and decorative textiles – were two of many areas interesting the artist and folklore researcher Nils Månsson Mandelgren (1813-1899)...

April 22, 2014
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The close-up view of the upper part of this dress shows curtain-like decorations characteristic of the period, here in the form of twisted silk tassels fastened to machine-embroidered lace. The bodice and the skirt that goes with it are mainly machine-made with minor hand-sewn details. Silk brocade dress, early 1870s. 
(Owner: Whitby Museum, Costume Collection, 2006/42.17). Photo: The IK Foundation & Company, London.

SILK BROCADE DRESS – EARLY 1870s (B 6)

Proficiency in making a complete dress, or a skirt and its related bodice, required a trained hand with an understanding of the many factors essential in creating a well-fitting garment. Correct measurements, and if possible multiple fittings during the sewing of the...

April 2, 2014
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Ikat dyeing and weaving with the finest of silk thread have traditions continuing far back in time in Uzbekistan, among other places from the regions of Bukhara and Samarkand. From the exhibition at the David Collection in Denmark

IKAT – EXHIBITION DISPLAYING TEXTILES FROM UZBEKISTAN (D 2)

Ikat dyeing and weaving with the finest of silk thread have traditions continuing far back in time in Uzbekistan, among other places from the regions of Bukhara and Samarkand. From the exhibition at the David Collection...

March 13, 2014
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The importance of the London & British Wool Market during the Victorian age is a fascinating and far-reaching subject, which is only briefly included in the research of the Whitby Gazette for my ongoing textile project. The aims with this “Textile Thought” are to share some examples of how a weekly newspaper in Yorkshire even so with regularity published notes about the wool markets in London at this time.

LONDON WOOL MARKET – WHITBY GAZETTE IN 1860 (B 5)

The importance of the London & British Wool Market during the Victorian age is a fascinating and far-reaching subject, which is only briefly included in the research of the Whitby Gazette for my ongoing textile project. The aims with this “Textile Thought” are to share...

March 1, 2014
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Long-lasting traditions, the usefulness of the textiles and creations of large dowries were the three most important factors in the increasing production of “rölakan” or double interlocked tapestries – as with many other woven techniques and embroideries – in the southernmost Sweden during the period 1700 to 1850s.

DOUBLE INTERLOCKED TAPESTRIES IN WORKS OF ART (A 7)

Long-lasting traditions, the usefulness of the textiles and creations of large dowries were the three most important factors in the increasing production of “rölakan” or double interlocked tapestries – as with many other woven techniques and embroideries...

February 14, 2014
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This second close-up photograph of the same dress shows the pointed waist from the inside of the garment. Clearly top-hemming has fastened the silk material to an unbleached lining, while short tightly-drawn gatherings follow the line of the pointed waist. This kind of waist-shaping was characteristic of the whole decade, but the garment’s narrow sleeves suggest the later 1840s. The lower parts of the sleeves are also decorated with silk braid trims, while the voluminous nature of the skirt was typical of the period. Dress in checked silk fabric, late 1840s. (Owner: Whitby Museum, Costume Collection, 2006/42.13). 
Photo: The IK Foundation & Company, London.

DRESS IN CHECKED SILK FABRIC – LATE 1840s (B 4)

Every detail of this late 1840s garment has been sewn by hand and much of the work would unquestionably require an experienced dressmaker, especially the link between skirt and bodice with its many complicated features, as is also the case with the bodice in general...

February 1, 2014
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His observations foremost included: trade with textiles, natural dyeing of yarn and fabric, textile materials, spinning and weaving, textiles for interior use and bed linen, fashion and personal travel clothes.

PEHR KALM’S TEXTILE OBSERVATIONS IN LONDON AND SURROUNDING COUNTIES 1748 (C 2)

His observations foremost included: trade with textiles, natural dyeing of yarn and fabric, textile materials, spinning and weaving, textiles for interior use and bed linen, fashion and personal travel clothes...

January 17, 2014
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Root 1

NATURAL DYEING – JOHN GERARD’S HERBAL of 1597 (1633) (E 2)

During my research of textile dyeing for the ongoing project “TEXTILIA LINNAEANA”, I came across a most interesting volume. It was a rare Herbal including numerous plants possible to use for natural dyeing and on a few occasions the accompaning texts...

January 3, 2014
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At the time for my documentation, copies from the county of Kristianstad was placed at the local handicraft organisation where I had the opportunity to study a total of 317 plates depicting double interlocked tapestries from said county. Here exemplified with a partly coloured photograph of a cushion from Ingelstads district in south eastern Skåne. Owner [1991] The Handicraft Organisation in Kristianstad, pl. 378. (Photo: The IK Foundation & Company, London).

THE FEMALE WEAVERS (A 6)

Female weavers who produced double interlocked tapestries or “rölakan” as a professional occupation were extremely rare during the 18th and 19th centuries, which also was confirmed during my documentation between 1984-91 including more than 1.600 examples of these tapestries...

December 19, 2013
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An example of how tight gatherings were prepared and sewn together with coarse linen thread in this hand-sewn silk dress from the mid to late 1850s. In general, drawing together considerable width in tight pleats of this kind especially in the back half of the skirt had long been a custom in England as in other countries. Quite simply, this was an unsurpassed design detail when it was necessary to draw together a skirt 3 or 4 metres in circumference in the smartest possible way. Red silk fabric dress c. 1855-60. (Owner: Whitby Museum, Costume Collection, GBD 13). 
Photo: The IK Foundation & Company, London.

GATHERING AND BELL-SHAPED SLEEVES (B 3)

An example of how tight gatherings were prepared and sewn together with coarse linen thread in this hand-sewn silk dress from the mid to late 1850s. In general, drawing together considerable width in tight pleats of this kind especially in the back half of the skirt had long been a custom in England...

December 6, 2013
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A complex interaction of longlived traditions in combination with economical, social and geographical circumstances gave rise to the rich variety of woven and embroidered textiles from farmer’s homes in the southernmost Sweden (Skåne) during the period 1700 to 1850s.

THE WEAVERS AND THEIR FAMILIES (A 5)

A complex interaction of longlived traditions in combination with economical, social and geographical circumstances gave rise to the rich variety of woven and embroidered textiles from farmer’s homes in the southernmost Sweden (Skåne) during the period 1700...

November 22, 2013
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Flags

FORGOTTEN VICTORIAN TEXTILE OBSERVATIONS (F 1)

Follow the young Swedish traveller, J P Bager, as he walks through the streets of København and Hamburg en route for London. He also visited Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds and Hull during his journey in the late summer of 1840...

November 7, 2013
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Featured

VICTORIAN FASHION (B 2)

The comprehensive Whitby collection related to clothing is unique in many ways for a small town, especially with its important collection of some 250 dresses, dating from the Victorian and Edwardian periods and up to the First World War (1837-1914)...

October 14, 2013
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This very similar bedcover, with trees and a lion within eight-sided frames, emanates from the same area. But has instead an embroidered marking in the border, which says; ‘KAD ANO 1805.’ The first three initials imply a woman’s name, unknown who but for example, “Kristina Anders Dotter” [Daughter] (in private ownership).
 Photo: The IK Foundation & Company, London.

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DETAILS – OWNERSHIP (A 4)

To place one’s mark or initials on possessions or produced goods, is a tradition which stretches back through Nordic heritage. Noticed as early as Viking Age, from which artifacts can be seen to house such markings...

September 28, 2013
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Alum was of universal importance for textile dyeing before the introduction of chemical dyes in the 1850s. Thanks to my two textile history projects which are currently in progress, I have had the possibility to study the significance of the alum quarrying and trade in several geographical areas.

ALUM AND TEXTILE DYEING (E 1)

Alum was of universal importance for textile dyeing before the introduction of chemical dyes in the 1850s. Thanks to my two textile history projects which are currently in progress, I have had the possibility to study the significance of the alum quarrying and trade...

September 12, 2013
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In contrast to the double interlocked tapestry with a simple star pattern, where both the warp thread and woolen weft are of significantly coarser quality. Skåne, Sweden (owner Malmö Museum). Courtesy of: The IK Foundation & Company, London.

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DETAILS – COLOURS (A 3)

During the period 1700-1850 all colours of the spectrum were produced from natural dyes. Primarily from plants but also in some aspects from various lice...

August 24, 2013
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Tools for wool: The IK Foundation & Company, London.

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DETAILS – MATERIALS (A 2)

The double interlocked tapestries or “rölakan” – together with many other textiles – only begins to reach its beauty, strength and usability, when the details of preparation, weaving and post production all come together...

August 13, 2013
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Tapa samples for the forthcoming publication Textiles from a Global 18th-century Perspective – Traditions and Trade studied by Carl Linnaeus and his Apostles are newly produced (2005) on Tonga using traditional methods. The dyeing substance for the patterned fabric, was collected from the roots of the mangrove tree, which has been used for decorating fabrics on Tonga for hundreds of years. In the original editions of Sparrman’s books – 1802 and 1818 – the white fabric had been obtained on Tahiti, whereas the patterned one had been produced on Tonga. 
Courtesy of the IK Foundation & Company (www.ikfoundation.org).

ANDERS SPARRMAN’S OBSERVATIONS OF TAPA CLOTH (C 1)

Sample books including tapa cloth, originating from the three circumnavigations of Captain James Cook – 1768 to 1779 – are today spread around the world...

July 7, 2013
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We can also see that the lion within the medallion-like frame was already well known in Scandinavia during the early medieval period, here depicted on a stone relief on the font of Dalby church in Skåne, Sweden. Which is believed to be the oldest preserved stone church in Scandinavia (11th century). 
Courtesy of The IK Foundation & Company (www.ikfoundation.org).

LIONS, STARS AND POMEGRANATES FROM SOUTHERN SWEDEN (A 1)

Southernmost Sweden had an unusually rich textile tradition which within the farmers’ households reached its peak between 1750 to 1850. My first research project on a larger scale was based on these historically...

June 13, 2013
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The project “TEXTILIA LINNAEANA – Global 18th-century Textile Traditions & Trade” has in several parts been worked together with the international research and publishing project “The Linnaeus Apostles – Global Science & Adventure”...

TEXTILIA LINNAEANA – Global 18th Century Textile Traditions & Trade

The project “TEXTILIA LINNAEANA – Global 18th-century Textile Traditions & Trade” has in several parts been worked together with the international research and publishing project “The Linnaeus Apostles – Global Science & Adventure”...

June 1, 2013
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Welcome to follow TEXTILIS Viveka Hansen's Textile Thoughts on TWITTER.
Please click on the image to access the Twitter page.

@TEXTILISNET ON TWITTER

Welcome to follow TEXTILIS Viveka Hansen's Textile Thoughts on TWITTER.

May 30, 2013
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Washing featured

LAUNDRY AND DYEING – 1850s to 1914 (B 1)

Washing, starching, ironing, repairing, altering and dyeing were important processes not only for keeping clothes clean but also to ensure that they continued to be wearable and remained fresh as long as possible. Fabric, the sewing of clothes, and ready-made garments were relatively expensive investments...

May 26, 2013
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South Dargin region, Daghestan. 18th century or earlier.
“Horses in two Rows”. Silk embroidery on cotton, 93 x 56 cm.
Courtesy of: Textile Art Publications (TAP), London.

KAITAG – TEXTILE ART FROM DAGHESTAN (D 1)

During April 1994, I had the pleasure to work as curator for this unique collection of embroidery from the Kaitag people in Daghestan exhibited at Christinehof in Skåne, Sweden. The unusual patterns embossed with beautiful colour combinations fascinated more than 5,000 textile interested...

May 26, 2013
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VH

BIO

On this site “T E X T I L I S  – Viveka Hansen’s Textile Thoughts” I would like to…

March 30, 2013